Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of your arteries. Whenever heart beats, it pushes out blood into the arteries. Blood pressure is maximum when heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called Systolic Pressure. When heart is at rest, amid beats, blood pressure falls. This is the Diastolic Pressure. Blood Pressure Reading makes use of these two numbers. Blood Pressure is expressed as Systolic/Diastolic blood pressure, for example, 120/80. Both readings are important. Blood Pressures over 130/80 are considered high. Blood Pressure reading 90/60 or lower indicates Low Blood Pressure .

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

As long as no symptoms are present, Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) is not a problem. Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) are as follows:-

Low Blood Pressure
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Fainting
  • Dehydration and abnormal thirst. Dehydration can occasionally cause blood pressure to drop. However, dehydration does not automatically signal Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension).
  • Lack of concentration
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea
  • Cold, clammy, pale skin
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Depression

Causes of Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

  • Decreases in Blood Volume. A considerable loss of blood from major shock, dehydration or severe internal bleeding reduces blood volume, leading to a severe drop in blood pressure.
  • Certain medications. A number of drugs can cause Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension), including diuretics and other drugs that treat hypertension; heart medications such as beta blockers; drugs for Parkinson’s disease; tricyclic antidepressants; erectile dysfunction drugs, particularly in combination with nitroglycerine; narcotics and alcohol. Other prescription and over-the-counter drugs may cause Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) when taken in combination with HBP medications.
  • Heart Problems. Abnormally low heart rate (bradycardia), problems with heart valves, heart attack and heart failure can lead to Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension). Your heart may not be able to circulate enough blood to meet your body’s needs.
  • Endocrine Problems. complications with hormone-producing glands in the body’s endocrine systems; specifically, an under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism), parathyroid disease, adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), low blood sugar and, in some cases, diabetes can lead to Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension).
  • Severe Infection . Septic shock can occur when bacteria leave the original site of an infection (most often in the lungs, abdomen or urinary tract) and enter the bloodstream. The bacteria then produce toxins that affect blood vessels, leading to a profound and life-threatening decline in blood pressure.
  • Allergic Reaction (Anaphylaxis). Anaphylactic shock is a sometimes-fatal allergic reaction that can occur in people who are highly sensitive to drugs such as penicillin, to certain foods such as peanuts, or to bee or wasp stings. This type of shock is differentiated by breathing problems, hives, itching, a swollen throat and a sudden, dramatic fall in blood pressure.
  • Neurally Mediated Hypotension. Unlike orthostatic hypotension, this disorder causes blood pressure to drop after standing for long periods, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea and fainting. This condition primarily affects young people and occurs because of a miscommunication between the heart and the brain.
  • Nutritional Deficiencies. A lack of the essential vitamins B-12 and folic acid can cause anemia, which in turn can lead to Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension).
  • Pregnancy. During the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, it is common for blood pressure to drop.
  • Prolonged Body Rest

 

Causes of sudden Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

  • High body temperature
  • Low Body Temperature
  • Heart muscle disease causing heart failure
  • Sepsis, a severe blood infection
  • Severe dehydration from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever
  • A reaction to medication or alcohol
  • A severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis
  • Loss of Blood

Test for Low Blood Pressure

  •         Blood pressure test
  •         Blood tests
  •         Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  •         Echocardiogram
  •         Stress test

Treatment of Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) in a healthy person that does not cause any problems more often than not does not require any treatment. Treatment depends on the cause of your Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension). Severe hypotension caused by shock is a medical emergency.

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