Brain acts as a control center by receiving, interpreting, and directing sensory information throughout the body. There are three major divisions of the brain. They are the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memories are a few of the many things governed by the brain. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing, it assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. It controls our body, receives information, analyzes information, and stores information in our memories. The average human brain weighs about 3 pounds (1300-1400 g), the human brain reaches its full size at about 6 years of age.
The purpose of the bony skull is to protect the brain from injury. The skull is formed from 8 bones that fuse together along suture lines. These bones include the frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), sphenoid, occipital and ethmoid.
Brain Arteries.The human brain requires a constant supply of oxygen. A lack of oxygen of just a few minutes results in irreversible damage to the brain.
- Meninges. The meninges are layers of tissue that separate the skull and the brain.
Anatomy of Brain and Functions of Brain Parts
- Frontal Lobe – The frontal lobe is one of the four sections of the brain. The frontal lobes are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. It is involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of “higher cognitive functions”.
- Parietal Lobe – The parietal lobe is a part of the brain positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe. The parietal lobes can be divided into two functional regions. One involves sensation and perception and the other is concerned with integrating sensory input. Several portions of the parietal lobe are important in language processing
- Occipital Lobe – The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. Fits between cerebral hemispheres
- Temporal Lobe – The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. Controls Vision
- Cerebellum – It is the part of the brain that that is responsible for human movement, co-ordination, motor control and sensory perception. It plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control.
- Diencephalon – The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain. Two major divisions are the thalamus and hypothalamus. It is the heart of limbic system
- Thalamus – The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. The thalamus is that part of the brain responsible for signal relaying and prioritization. It controls perceptual function
- Hypothalamus – The hypothalamus is a small area at the base of the brain, weighing about 4 gm out of the 1400 gm brain weight of an adult human. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: Body temperature; Hunger; Moods; Release of hormones from many glands. Necessary for storing new memory
- Brain Stem – The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the Pons. Controls basic life function
- Mid Brain – The midbrain is a small region of the brain that relays information for the visual, auditory, and motor systems. It is a cerebral hemispheres nerve pathway
- Pons – The Pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain. It is cerebral cortex relay center.
- Medulla – The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
- Epithalamus – The epithalamus is located towards the top of the thalamus and back. The epithalamus includes the pineal gland and the habenular nuclei.
- Limbic System – The most primitive part of the brain, it is situated close to the inner wall of each cerebral hemisphere and includes the brain system concerned with the sense of smell.
- Olfactory System – The olfactory system is the part of the brain that allows people to interpret smells.
- Hippocampus – The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe. It is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing.
- Amygdale – It is an almond shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain. The amygdaloidal region of the brain is a complex structure involved in a wide range of normal behavioral functions and psychiatric conditions.