Radiology is a medical area of expertise that make use of the of imaging to both diagnosis and treatment of the disease, visualized within the human body in order to evaluate the physiological functions and anatomical configuration of the body.
The Radiologist uses various imaging technologies to diagnose and treat different diseases; the commonly used techniques are as follows:-
- X-Ray Radiography
- Computed Tomography (CT)
- Nuclear Medicine
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
In Interventional Radiology minimum invasive procedure are applied. The medical imaging is usually carried out by radiographers or radiologic technologists. A radiologist interprets or reads the images and produces a report of finding and impression or diagnosis. This report is then transmitted to the ordering physician either routinely or emergently. Initially, the radiographer was known as roentgenogram, while skia grapher (from ancient Greek words for “shadows and writer”) term was used until about 1918 which mean radiographer.
It is a fresh concept developed in which the radiological images from one location is transmitted to another station for interpretation by the radiologist. Presently this concept is practice in ICU, in emergent examinations, or at night or on weekends. The images are often sent across time zone while the radiologist working on his normal daylight hour. Tele-Radiology consultancy services can be utilized in resolving complicating and puzzling cases. Concept of Teleradiology is based on a sending station, high speed internet connection, and high quality receiving station. Before transmitting plain X-Rays they are first digitalized through a digitalized machine then transmitted. In case of CT, MRI Ultra sound and Nuclear Medicine scans can be sent directly, as in these machines have already the provision of collection of digitalized data. The computer at the receiving end needs to have a high quality display screen that has been tested and cleared for clinical purposes. Reports are then transmitted to the requesting physician.
History of Radiology
- November 8, 1895. German Physics professor Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen discovered X-Ray, and observed that X-Ray passes through human tissue, but it does not passes through bone or metal. Rontgen labeled the unknown radiation rays as “X”. He received the first noble price. X-Ray was discovered by him when he made picture of his wife’s hand on the photographic plate, it was first ever photograph of a human body part.
- january 11, 1896. X-Rays were used as routine investigation under the supervision of John Hall Edward in Birmingham, England.
- February 14th , 1896. X-Ray for the first time has been advised as routine investigation in surgical procedure when the needle struck the Halls-Edwards.
- February 3rd, 1896. Gilman Frost, Professor of Medicine at the College, and his brother Edwin Frost, Professor of Physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy to the X-rays, whom Gilman had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, and collected the resulting images of the broken bones on gelatin photographic plate obtained from local photographer who was interested in Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen work.
- During First World War. Marie Curie pushed for radiography for use of treatment of wounded soldiers. Initially may staff conducted radiography in hospitals, including physicist, photographers, doctors, nurses and engineer.
- In 1972. The first commercial CT scanner was invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield at EMI Central research Laboratory Great Britain. Sir Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan McLeod Cormack shared the noble prize for Medicine in 1979 for Inventing the CT Scanning.
- July 3, 1977. Raymond Vahan Damadia a medical doctor and research scientist discovered the basis of using magnetic resonance imaging as tool of medical diagnosis.MRI scan can give the best soft tissue results.