Maternal Malnutrition Problems

The  most  common  maternal nutritional problems are Protein deficiency, Iron  deficiency Vitamin A deficiency ,Iodine  deficiency  Folic Acid  deficiency, Zinc deficiency, Vitamin B6 and  Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Macro nutrition deficiency

Protein Energy Mal-Nutrition.  It  is  due  to the  deficiency of  protein fat  and  carbohydrate in the diet  due  to which  body starts breaking  down the muscle  to provide  the  needed energy if  no carbohydrates are present  for  energy production. DEFICIENCY MAY RESULT  in infection ,obstruction labor  Maternal mortality ,low birth weight  and IGUR ,Neonatal and  infant  mortality  ,Maternal wasting ,fatigue, increased spontaneous  miscarriage.  It may be corrected by taking adequate frequency food, rich in carbohydrate, proteins and fats.  Personnel hygiene and environmental sanitation plays a vital role.

Micro-Nutrient Deficient Nutrition

Iron deficiency or anemia. It is the most common form of malnutrition, other causes of anemia includes hookworm, malaria, Anemia  is  defined  in first  and  third trimester as  haemoglobin is  11gms/100 ml of  Haematocrit less than33% and  in second  trimester  haemoglobin  less than 10.5 gms/100mlor  haematocrit less than 32%.

Causes of Dietary Iron Deficiency or  Anemia are as follows:

a)  low dietary iron  intake

b) low  iron  bioavailability ,

c)  prohibitory consumptions,

d) Parasitic, infection of hookworm.

e)  Causes  of  blood loss ,

f)   Increase iron loss.

g)  Malaria, destroys red blood cells, leads to severe anaemia and thus  leads to increase risk of  pregnancy.

These causes of  anaemia  leads to maternal death, reduces transfer of iron to the fetus  which causes low birth baby ,risk of neonatal mortality increases ,reduces physical activity and  productivity and  impaired  cognition. 20% of  death in women occurs  due  to anaemia, it  increases the  risk of  haemorrahage  ,prolong  labour  which  may  lead  to sepsis. It  can  be  managed by  taking  adequate intake  of  food  rich in  micro nutrient  such as  fruits, and  dark green and  bright colour vegetable. Supplemented food may be fortified with mineral     and vitamin formulation.

Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency  may  be due to   inadequate  intake   vitamin A  rich foods  ,recurrent  infection short interval between  birth deficiency  may lead to night blindness  contribute  to higher maternal mortality ,miscarriage ,Stillbirth and  low  birth    and  low  concentration in mother milk are common features.

Iodine deficiency disorder

It is  common in   people residing  in mountainous  terrain and  where plant  food  are inadequate in iodine  and  soil which lack iodine  content. People who are not eating sea food are likely to Iodine deficiencies   disorder.

Deficiency of iodine results in impaired cognitive function, poor school performance, endemic creatinism, goiter, abortion

Zinc Deficiency

occurs  due  decrease bioavailability by phytates and  dietary fibers and  increase excretion of zinc, poor zinc  content  in diet ,deficiency may result in premature rupture of  membrane  prolong  labour, preterm  labour ,low birth weight.

Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12. 

Deficiency may due to INH drug taken in tuberculosis treatment. Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12which may result due to low intake of vegetables and animal products. Deficiency  may  result in  Megaloblastic  Anaemia ,impaired  development  of  infant  brain  and  neurological development.

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