The most common maternal nutritional problems are Protein deficiency, Iron deficiency Vitamin A deficiency ,Iodine deficiency Folic Acid deficiency, Zinc deficiency, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Macro nutrition deficiency
Protein Energy Mal-Nutrition. It is due to the deficiency of protein fat and carbohydrate in the diet due to which body starts breaking down the muscle to provide the needed energy if no carbohydrates are present for energy production. DEFICIENCY MAY RESULT in infection ,obstruction labor Maternal mortality ,low birth weight and IGUR ,Neonatal and infant mortality ,Maternal wasting ,fatigue, increased spontaneous miscarriage. It may be corrected by taking adequate frequency food, rich in carbohydrate, proteins and fats. Personnel hygiene and environmental sanitation plays a vital role.
Micro-Nutrient Deficient Nutrition
Iron deficiency or anemia. It is the most common form of malnutrition, other causes of anemia includes hookworm, malaria, Anemia is defined in first and third trimester as haemoglobin is 11gms/100 ml of Haematocrit less than33% and in second trimester haemoglobin less than 10.5 gms/100mlor haematocrit less than 32%.
Causes of Dietary Iron Deficiency or Anemia are as follows:
a) low dietary iron intake
b) low iron bioavailability ,
c) prohibitory consumptions,
d) Parasitic, infection of hookworm.
e) Causes of blood loss ,
f) Increase iron loss.
g) Malaria, destroys red blood cells, leads to severe anaemia and thus leads to increase risk of pregnancy.
These causes of anaemia leads to maternal death, reduces transfer of iron to the fetus which causes low birth baby ,risk of neonatal mortality increases ,reduces physical activity and productivity and impaired cognition. 20% of death in women occurs due to anaemia, it increases the risk of haemorrahage ,prolong labour which may lead to sepsis. It can be managed by taking adequate intake of food rich in micro nutrient such as fruits, and dark green and bright colour vegetable. Supplemented food may be fortified with mineral and vitamin formulation.
Vitamin A Deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency may be due to inadequate intake vitamin A rich foods ,recurrent infection short interval between birth deficiency may lead to night blindness contribute to higher maternal mortality ,miscarriage ,Stillbirth and low birth and low concentration in mother milk are common features.
Iodine deficiency disorder
It is common in people residing in mountainous terrain and where plant food are inadequate in iodine and soil which lack iodine content. People who are not eating sea food are likely to Iodine deficiencies disorder.
Deficiency of iodine results in impaired cognitive function, poor school performance, endemic creatinism, goiter, abortion
occurs due decrease bioavailability by phytates and dietary fibers and increase excretion of zinc, poor zinc content in diet ,deficiency may result in premature rupture of membrane prolong labour, preterm labour ,low birth weight.
Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12.
Deficiency may due to INH drug taken in tuberculosis treatment. Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12which may result due to low intake of vegetables and animal products. Deficiency may result in Megaloblastic Anaemia ,impaired development of infant brain and neurological development.