Over the years coffee has grown in popularity and has been developed into a variety of flavors. The way coffee is prepared has also grown and developed over the years, as well. Roasting causes chemical changes to take place as the beans are rapidly brought to very high temperatures. Roasted beans smell like coffee, and weigh less because the moisture has been roasted out. They are crunchy to the bite, ready to be ground and brewed.
Types of Coffee Roasts
It takes years of training to become an expert roaster, because the difference between perfectly roasted coffee and a ruined batch can be a matter of seconds. Many consumers assume that the strong, rich flavor of darker roasts indicates a higher level of caffeine, but the truth is that light roasts actually have a slightly higher concentration.
Light Roasts. Light brown in color, this roast is generally preferred for milder coffee varieties. There will be no oil on the surface of these beans because they are not roasted long enough for the oils to break through to the surface.
Medium Roasts. This roast is medium brown in color with a stronger flavor and a non-oily surface. It’s often referred to as the American roast because it is generally preferred in the United States.
Medium Dark Roasts. Rich, dark color, this roast has some oil on the surface and with a slight bittersweet aftertaste.
Dark Roasts. This roast produces shiny black beans with an oily surface and a pronounced bitterness. The darker the roast, the less acidity will be found in the coffee beverage.
Types of Coffee
- Espresso Coffee. Espresso means “express” in Italian. Espresso is a coffee drink made by forcing hot, pressurized water through finely ground coffee beans. This creates a very concentrated drink, often with a layer of caramel-colored foam on top — the creme. espresso is commonly made with darker roasts, it can be made with any type of coffee beans.
- Americano Coffee. Americano, made by pouring a shot of espresso into a coffee cup and then adding hot water. Americanos can be made with one, two, or even three shots if you’re feeling feisty. An Americano has about the some level of caffeine as the drip coffee you get from your home coffee maker, but has the full bodied flavor of an espresso
- Latte. A latte is made by pouring milk into the espresso. First the espresso is poured into the coffee cup, and then warm milk is added until the cup is full.
- Macchiato. If you are looking for a coffee drink with much less milk, you can opt for the macchiato. This is an espresso with a little bit of steamed milk. This is good if you want the intensity of the espresso flavor, but cut just a little bit with the soft feel of milk.
- Cappuccino. As a derivative of espresso, this popular beverage was basically created to cater to people that liked cream in their coffee. It is made by pouring espresso into the coffee cup, which is then filled with steamed milk and foam. If you order a “dry” cappuccino, you will get one with more foam. The same goes for a “wet” cappuccino, which will have more milk.
- Brewed Coffee. You simply put the coffee grounds in the basket (with or without a filter, depending on your machine) add water and turn on the coffee maker. The coffee maker heats the water and slowly drips it through the grounds to release all of the rich coffee flavor. How quickly the water heats and drips also depends on your machine. On average, it takes about five minutes to brew a pot of coffee.
- Cafe Mocha. Quite popular with the ladies or after dinner coffee. It is one part espresso with one part chocolate syrup and two or three parts of frothed milk.
- Frappe. This is a cold espresso and popularly ordered in some cafes in Europe and Latin America during summer months. Generally prepared using 1-2 teaspoons of instant coffee with sugar, water and ice. The brew is next placed in a long glass with ice, and milk turning it into a big coffee milkshake.
- Cuban coffee. Cuban coffee is a type of espresso, which is sweetened with natural brown sugar as it is being brewed. A common method for making Cuban espresso is to add few drops of the espresso to the sugar and mix vigorously till it results in a creamy, light brown paste. The remaining espresso is then added to the light brown paste creating a light brown foam layer, atop the coffee.
- Doppio. Italian term for double. Double Espresso or twice the amount of coffee and twice the amount of water. Basically it describes two shots of espresso in one demitasse container.
- Ristretto: (Ristretto in Italian means “restricted, shrunk or short”) It is the richest and most concentrated espresso drink where less water but the same amount of coffee is used to make the beverage and creates a less bitter espresso.