Zika Virus


Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to dengue virus. It was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in Zika forest, Uganda in 1947, in mosquitoes (Aedes africanus) in the same forest in 1948 and in humans in Nigeria in 1954. Zika virus is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and was first identified in the South Pacific after an outbreak on Yap Island in 2007.

Transmission of Zika Virus

Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans through bites from Aedes mosquitos, which often live around buildings in urban areas and are usually active during daylight hours (peak biting activity occurs in early mornings and late afternoons). Some evidence suggests Zika virus can also be transmitted to humans through blood transfusion, perinatal transmission and sexual transmission. However, these modes are very rare.

  • These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in and near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases.  They are aggressive daytime biters, prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

Incubation Period of Zika Virus

The incubation period is typically between 2 and 7 days
Signs and Symptoms of Zika Virus

About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill (i.e., develop Zika). A high rate of asymptomatic infection with Zika virus is expected, similar to other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus.

  • The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week.
  • The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
  • Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for a few days but it can be found longer in some people.
  • Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.

Diagnosis of Zika Virus

Zika virus is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, West Nile and yellow fever.

Treatment of Zika Virus

There is no commercial vaccine or specific antiviral drug treatment for Zika virus infection. Treatment is directed primarily at relieving symptoms using anti-pyretics and analgesics. Treat the symptoms of Zika Virus with following:

  • Get plenty of rest

  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration

  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain

  • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen. Aspirin and NSAIDs should be avoided until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of hemorrhage (bleeding). If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.

Zika Virus and Pregnancy

There are concerns that pregnant women who become infected with Zika virus can transmit the disease to their unborn babies, with potentially serious consequences. Reports from several countries, most notably Brazil, demonstrate an increase in severe foetal birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes in babies whose mothers were infected with Zika virus while pregnant. Additional international research is necessary and ongoing to determine the link between Zika virus and foetal damage. If you are pregnant and develop a rash, red eyes, fever, or joint pain, please consult your health care provider

Prevention From Zika Virus

Prevention and control relies on reducing the breeding of mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people. This can be achieved by reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled habitats that support mosquito larvae, reducing the adult mosquito populations around at-risk communities and by using barriers such as repellants, insect screens, closed doors and windows, and long clothing.

  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants

  • Use insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), or IR3535. Always use as directed.
  • Insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, and IR3535 are safe for pregnant and nursing women and children older than 2 months when used according to the product label. Oil of lemon eucalyptus products should not be used on children under 3 years of age.
  • If you use both sunscreen and insect repellent, apply the sunscreen first and then the repellent.
  • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents).
  • Use bed nets as necessary
  • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.



Types of Hepatitis


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis. Scientists have identified 5 unique hepatitis viruses, identified by the letters A, B, C, D, and E. While all cause liver disease, they vary in important ways. Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parental contact with infected body fluids. Together hepatitis B and C cause approximately 80% of all liver cancer deaths and kill close to 1.4 million people every year – more than either HIV or tuberculosis. Viral Hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. Continue reading “Types of Hepatitis”


What is typhoid?

Typhoid (typhoid fever) is a serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. If it is not treated, it can kill up to 30% of people who get it. Some people who get typhoid become “carriers,” who can spread the disease to others. Generally, people get typhoid from contaminated food or water. Typhoid strikes about 21 million people a year around the world and kills about 200,000.

  1. Typhoid Vaccine Types

Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid. There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid.

  • Inactivated (killed) vaccine gotten as a shot.
  • Live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which is taken orally (by mouth).
  1. Who should get typhoid vaccine and when?

Continue reading “TYPHOID VACCINES”

Shoulder Pain

Shoulder Anatomy
Shoulder Anatomy

Anatomy of Shoulder Joint

The shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone). Two joints facilitate shoulder movement. The acromioclavicular joint is located between the acromion and the clavicle. The glenohumeral joint, commonly called the shoulder joint, is a ball-and-socket-type joint that helps move the shoulder forward and backward and allows the arm to rotate in a circular fashion or hinge out and up away from the body. Shoulder Pain may originate in the joint itself, or from any of the many surrounding muscles, ligaments or tendons. Shoulder pain usually worsens with activities or movement of your arm or shoulder. Continue reading “Shoulder Pain”

Eczema – Skin Disease

What is Eczema?

Eczema  – Skin Disease

Eczema is a chronic Skin Disease it is a term used for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema skin disease is also called dermatitis. It is not dangerous, but most types cause red, swollen and itchy skin. Factors that can cause eczema include other diseases, irritating substances, allergies and your genetic makeup. Eczema is not contagious.

Types of Eczema Skin Disease

There are many different types of eczema.

  1. Allergic Contact Eczema (Dermatitis) – A reaction where the skin has come into contact with a substance that the immune system recognizes as foreign
  2. Contact Eczema – A localized reaction where the skin has come into contact with an allergen
  3. Dyshidriotic Eczema – Irritation of skin on palms of hands and soles of feet, characterized by blisters
  4. Neurodermatitis – Scaly patches of skin on head, forearms, wrists, lower legs caused by localized itch such as an insect bite
  5. Nummular eczema – Circular patches of irritated skin that can be crusted, scaling and itchy
  6. Seborrheic Eczema – Oily, scaly yellowish patches of skin, usually on scalp and face
  7. Stasis Dermatitis – skin irritation on lower legs, usually related to circulatory problems.
  8. Atopic Dermatitis – It is a chronic skin condition that commonly starts during infancy and continues through into childhood. Some people outgrow the condition while some people will continue to have it into adulthood.

The most common type of eczema is Atopic Dermatitis. It is an allergic condition that makes your skin dry and itchy. It is most common in babies and children. Continue reading “Eczema – Skin Disease”

Sciatica Treatment – Alternative Methods

Sciatica Nerve

Sciatica Treatment

The sciatic nerve (ischiadic nerve or ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb. It is the longest and widest single nerve in the human body, going from the top of the leg to the foot on the posterior aspect. The sciatic nerve supplies nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot. The sciatic nerve innervates the skin of the foot, as well as the entire lower leg (except for its medial side). The skin to the sole of the foot is provided by the tibial nerve, and the lower leg and upper surface of the foot via the common fibular nerve.

Sciatica – Symptoms

Pain that emits from your lower (lumbar) spine, travels to your buttock and down the back of your leg. Discomfort is felt almost anywhere along the nerve pathway, but it’s especially likely to follow a path from your low back to your buttock and the back of your thigh and calf.

  1. Pain in the rear or leg that is worse when sitting.
  2. Burning or tingling down the leg.
  3. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty moving the leg or foot.
  4. A constant pain on one side of the rear.
  5. A shooting pain that makes it difficult to stand up.

Continue reading “Sciatica Treatment – Alternative Methods”

Sciatica Pain Treatment

Sciatica Nerve

Ice or heat is often used in the Sciatica Pain Treatment . Heat or ice is usually placed on the affected area for 20 minutes every 2 hours to provide temporary Sciatica pain relief. Following methods are commonly used for Sciatica Pain Treatment:-

Sciatica Pain Treatment Medications 

Medications are commonly prescribed for the  Sciatica Pain Treatment are as follows:-

  1. Analgesics are used to relieve pain, but its effectiveness is limited
  2. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen, aspirin, or NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen [Advil, Motrin], ketoprofen, or naproxen [Aleve] .
  3. For severe cases of sciatica an epidural steroid injection is often used. This treatment consists of an injection of a steroid in the affected area to reduce the inflammation and pain. The effects are temporary and can last from one week to a year. Epidural injections are not successful for every patient.
  4. Prescription muscle relaxants are used to ease muscle spasms

Continue reading “Sciatica Pain Treatment”

Apple Cider Vinegar

What is Apple Cider Vinegar?

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple Cider Vinegar is a type of vinegar made from cider or apple and has a pale to medium amber color. It is made by crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and Yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste.

Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits

Apple Cider Vinegar is not only a tasty addition to homemade pickles, marinades, and salad dressing, but is it also good for your health. Organic apple cider vinegar is antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal, so it can soothe your sore throat, heal your heartburn, remove that persistent wart and so much more. And above all, it’s all natural and economical. Many of its supposed benefits are unproven, but some experts think that adding a little of this sour liquid to your life may have many health advantages. Some of its health benefits are as follows:- Continue reading “Apple Cider Vinegar”

Common Cold – Commonly called Cold

Common Cold Vs Flu

The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, head cold, or simply a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose.

(Watch How a Cold Develops Video)

Common Cold Virus

Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhino-viruses are the most common. In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children. A cold usually begins with fatigue, a feeling of being chilled, sneezing and a headache, followed in a couple of days by a runny nose and cough.

Common Cold Incubation Period

From the time a cold virus enters the nose, it takes 8-12 hours for the viral reproductive cycle to be completed and for new cold virus to be released in nasal secretions. This interval is called the incubation period. Cold symptoms can also begin 10-12 hours after virus is first produced in the nose. The time from the beginning of the infection to the peak of symptoms is typically 36-72 hours.  They usually resolve in seven to ten days but some can last for up to three weeks. The average duration of cough is 18 days and in some cases people develop a post-viral cough which can linger after the infection is gone. In children, the cough lasts for more than ten days in 35–40% of the cases and continues for more than 25 days in 10%. Continue reading “Common Cold – Commonly called Cold”

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