Adenovirus Infections

Clinical Manifestations of Adenovirus Infections

Adenovirus infections of the upper respiratory tract are common and, although often subclinical, can result in symptoms of the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, and pharyngoconjunctival fever. Life threatening disseminated infection, severe pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, and encephalitis occur occasionally, especially among young infants and immunocompromised hosts. Apart from respiratory involvement, illnesses and presentations of adenovirus include gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness. Symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis.

Epidemiology

Infection in infants and children can occur at any age. Adenoviruses causing respiratory tract infections usually are transmitted by respiratory tract secretions through person-to-person contact, airborne droplets, and fomites, the latter because adenoviruses are stable in the environment. The conjunctiva can provide a portal of entry.

Incubation Period

Respiratory tract infection, 2 to 14 days; gastroenteritis, 3 to 10 days.

Diagnostic Tests Continue reading “Adenovirus Infections”

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Treatment of Scabies

What is Scabies

scabies
Scabies Treatment

Scabies is a skin condition caused by mites living in your skin. Scabies, are named the human itch mite and are the most common cause of itching dermatosis. The itching and rash seen with a scabies infection result from burrowing of the skin by a mite and development of subsequent hypersensitivity reaction. The initial infestation can remain asymptomatic for up to 4-6 weeks while a reinfestation will elicit an immediate sensitization reaction and pruritus.

Transmission of Scabies
Transmission occurs primarily by intimate interaction (i.e. crowding, multiple sexual partners). Without host contact, the mites die within a day and transmission via contaminated bedding or clothing is rare. Host immunity and scratching at the site of infection serve to limit most infestations (<15 mites/person). Hyperinfestation (1000+ mites/person), also termed crusted scabies or Norwegian scabies, may occur in patients with glucocorticoid use, with immunodeficiency, or with a neurologic illness which limits scratching.

Treatment of Scabies Continue reading “Treatment of Scabies”

Some Instant Coffee Products may be Harmful warns FDA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning consumers not to drink Longjack Coffee, in addition to other instant coffee products that have been recalled recently –Kopi Jantan Tradisional Natural Herbs Coffee, CaverFlo Coffee, and AMPT Coffee. These products are labeled to contain instant coffee, non-dairy creamer, and other ingredients. However, FDA laboratory analysis confirmed:

  1. CaverFlo Coffee and AMPT Coffee contain undeclared sildenafil and tadalafil;
  2. Longjack Coffee and Kopi Jantan Tradisional Natural Herbs Coffee contain undeclared desmethyl carbodenafil, an analogue of sildenafil; and
  3. All of these products contain undeclared milk.

Continue reading “Some Instant Coffee Products may be Harmful warns FDA”

Homeopathic Teething Tablets and Gels may be Harmful for Babies

US_261-503782309_wideThe Food and Drug Administration issued a warning for parents to immediately stop feeding babies any homeopathic teething tablets and gels, and to discard any unused products. The FDA’s action appears to stem from concern about the active ingredient belladonna in the tablets. The FDA recommends that consumers stop using these products and dispose of any in their possession. Consumers should seek medical care immediately if their child experiences seizures, difficulty breathing, lethargy, excessive sleepiness, muscle weakness, skin flushing, constipation, difficulty urinating, or agitation after using homeopathic teething tablets or gels. Continue reading “Homeopathic Teething Tablets and Gels may be Harmful for Babies”

Attending Church helps you to live longer and improve your Health

World Churches

Cathedral Church Lahore 2 - Copy Cathedral Church of Resurrection 

Regular churchgoing is not just good for the soul, scientists say, it’s good for the body too. The scientists believe that churchgoers had lower blood pressure, experienced less depression and anxiety, and had stronger immune systems than non-churchgoers and had less less trouble keeping their weight down.

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Be Aware of Ticks

What are Ticks

Experts predict that ticks and the diseases they cause will be more abundant due to warmer winter temperatures. Ticks are not insects, they are arachnids, like the spider, they have eight legs when they reach adulthood. Life begins as an egg, and then ticks develop through larval and nymphal stages before reaching maturity.

Risk Related with Tick Bites

To survive, ticks must eat the blood of mammals, birds, reptiles or amphibians. If infected with bacteria, viruses or parasites, a biting tick poses a risk to human health.

Ticks Living Areas.


Ticks can be found in our backyards, under leaves, on ground cover, around walls and near structures and woodpiles where rodents and other small mammals are active. They are mainly active outdoors in wooded areas amongst shrubs, trees and tall grasses.Ticks

Types of Ticks.

  1. Black Legged Ticks. Black-legged ticks (also called deer ticks) make their home throughout the Northeast and upper Midwest. Nearly 90% of ticks in the Northeast and upper Midwestern US are black-legged ticks.
  2. Dog Ticks. Dog ticks are common in the Midwest and Eastern US, with limited numbers on the Pacific Coast.
  3. Lone Star Ticks. The lone star tick, which can be found throughout Southeastern and Eastern states.

Disease Caused by Ticks Continue reading “Be Aware of Ticks”

Opioid Dependence and Addiction

Opioid dependence and addiction are most appropriately understood as chronic medical disorders, like hypertension, schizophrenia, and diabetes. Opioids are chemically related and interact with opioid receptors on nerve cells in the brain and nervous system to produce pleasurable effects and relieve pain. Opioids are a class of drugs that include the illicit drug heroin as well as the licit prescription pain relievers oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, fentanyl and others. opioid withdrawal is one of the most powerful factors driving opioid dependence and addictive behaviors. Treatment of the patient’s withdrawal symptoms is based on understanding how withdrawal is related to the brain’s adjustment to opioids.

Repeated exposure to escalating dosages of opioids alters the brain so that it functions more or less normally when the drugs are present and abnormally when they are not. Two clinically important results of this alteration are opioid tolerance (the need to take higher and higher dosages of drugs to achieve the same opioid effect) and drug dependence (susceptibility to withdrawal symptoms). Withdrawal symptoms occur only in patients who have developed tolerance. Opioid tolerance occurs because the brain cells that have opioid receptors on them gradually become less responsive to the opioid stimulation. Therefore, more opioid is needed to produce pleasure comparable to that provided in previous drug-taking episodes.

the pleasure derived from opioids’ activation of the brain’s natural reward system promotes continued drug use during the initial stages of opioid addiction. Subsequently, repeated exposure to opioid drugs induces the brain mechanisms of dependence, which leads to daily drug use to avert the unpleasant symptoms of drug withdrawal. Further prolonged use produces more long-lasting changes in the brain that may underlie the compulsive drug-seeking behavior and related adverse consequences that are the hallmarks of addiction.

Symptoms of Opioid Addiction.

Intoxication State

For mild to moderate intoxication, individuals may present with drowsiness, pupillary constriction, and slurred speech. For severe overdose, patients may experience respiratory depression, stupor, and coma. A severe overdose may be fatal.

Withdrawal State

  • Autonomic symptoms – diarrhea, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, shivering, nausea, emesis, piloerection

  • Pain – abdominal cramping, bone pains, and diffuse muscle aching

  • Central nervous system arousal – sleeplessness, restlessness, tremors

  • Lethary

  • Paranoia

  • Respiratory depression

  • Nausea.

Treatment of Opioid Addiction

The medications most commonly used to treat opioid abuse attach to the brain cells’ mu opioid receptors, like the addictive opioids themselves. Methadone and LAAM stimulate the cells much as the illicit opioids do, but they have different effects because of their different durations of action. Naltrexone and buprenorphine stimulate the cells in ways quite distinct from the addictive opioids. Each medication can play a role in comprehensive treatment for opioid addiction. Despite the effectiveness of medications, they must be used in conjunction with appropriate psychosocial treatments.

Methadone.

Methadone is a long-acting opioid medication. Unlike morphine, heroin, oxycodone, and other addictive opioids that remain in the brain and body for only a short time, methadone has effects that last for days. Methadone causes dependence, but—because of its steadier influence on the mu opioid receptors—it produces minimal tolerance and alleviates craving and compulsive drug use. In addition, methadone therapy tends to normalize many aspects of the hormonal disruptions found in addicted individuals. Methadone treatment reduces relapse rates, facilitates behavioral therapy, and enables patients to concentrate on life tasks such as maintaining relationships and holding jobs. Patients are generally started on a daily dose of 20 mg to 30 mg, with increases of 5 mg to 10 mg until a dose of 60 mg to 100 mg per day is achieved. The higher doses produce full suppression of opioid craving. Patients generally stay on methadone for 6 months to 3 years, some much longer. Relapse is common among patients who discontinue methadone after only 2 years or less, and many patients have benefited from lifelong methadone maintenance.

LAAM.

A longer acting derivative of methadone, LAAM can be given three times per week. Recent concerns about heart rhythm problems have limited LAAM’s use. Dosing with LAAM is highly individualized, and three-times-weekly doses range from 40 mg to 140 mg.

Naltrexone.

Naltrexone is used to help patients avoid relapse after they have been detoxified from opioid dependence. Naltrexone clings to the mu opioid receptors 100 times more strongly than opioids do, but it does not promote the brain processes that produce feelings of pleasure. An individual who is adequately dosed with naltrex-one does not obtain any pleasure from addictive opioids and is less motivated to use them. Before naltrexone treatment is started, patients must be fully detoxified from all opioids, including methadone and other treatment medications; otherwise, they will be at risk for severe withdrawal. Naltrexone is given at 50 mg per day or up to 200 mg twice weekly. Patients’ liver function should be tested before treatment starts

Buprenorphine.

Buprenorphine’s action on the mu opioid receptors elicits two different therapeutic responses within the brain cells, depending on the dose. At low doses buprenorphine has effects like methadone, but at high doses it behaves like naltrexone, blocking the receptors so strongly that it can precipitate withdrawal in highly dependent patients.

Eggs – Good or Bad for Health

Nutrients in Eggs

Eggs
Eggs

In fact, cholesterol happens to be one of the most important nutrients in your body. It’s a requirement for growth (in infants and adults). And it’s required for the production of many hormones. egg yolks are one of the most nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich and vitamin-laden foods on the planet. Egg yolks contain 90 percent of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamin, B6, folate, pantothenic acid and B12 of the egg. In addition the yolk contains all of the fat-soluble components, such as vitamins A, D and E, not to mention the heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Egg yolks are also a rich source of some other very interesting nutrients such as choline, lutein and zeaxanthin. Choline is essential for cardiovascular and brain function. Eating more of it may mean mean less inflammation, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimers, and more. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the major antioxidants in eggs. They protect the eyesby filtering harmful light wavelengths and lowering risk of macular degeneration. People eating only egg whites or avoiding eggs entirely are missing out on many of these key nutrients.

Cholesterol in Eggs

A large egg contains about 185 mg of cholesterol. Since the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends a limit of 300 mg per day, eat two eggs and you’ve exceeded that limit. It assumes that when you eat more cholesterol (from eggs and other animal foods), your blood cholesterol increases. Each egg yolk contains 6 g of fat and 54 kcal. So even though they’re full of nutrients, they still do contain calories

Recommendations for Eating Eggs

If you’re healthy, you can eat eggs guilt-free. The research consistently and reliably shows that the cholesterol you eat has very little impact on how much cholesterol is in your blood. Every single day you produce between 1 and 2 grams of it on your own (that is 5-10 times the cholesterol in a large egg). When you eat more cholesterol from foods like eggs, your body produces less of it. And when you eat less cholesterol from foods like eggs, your body produces more. Cholesterol production is largely determined by your genetics, exercise habits, and stress. eggs also contain additional nutrients that may help lower the risk for heart disease.

Eggs are a meatless source of complete proteins. Complete proteins contain essential amino acids that your body cannot produce itself, and which must come from the diet. This makes eggs a great food choice for vegetarians, who may otherwise struggle to get these essential amino acids with meat and fish cut from their diet. Fat, both saturated and unsaturated, is another macro-nutrient found in eggs. Luckily, most of that fat is of the unsaturated, heart-healthy variety that your body needs for keeping cell membranes healthy, protecting internal organs, and helping with absorbing fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Up to one egg per day is not associated with increased heart disease risk in healthy individuals
  • People who have diabetes and heart disease, it may be best to limit egg consumption to no more than three yolks per week.
  • Consumption of whole grains and fruit predict lower risk of heart disease, and when it comes to protein, plant sources like nuts and seeds are related to lower cardiovascular and overall mortality, especially when compared to red meat or eggs.
  • Keeping intake of eggs moderate to low will be best for most, emphasizing plant-based protein options when possible
  • Boiling eggs is good and frying is bad. However, both can have a place within a healthy diet.
  • If you like eggs but don’t want the extra cholesterol, use only the egg whites.

 

Awesome Joke 😀

One day an ✈aeroplane cleaner was cleaning the pilots’ cockpit when he saw a 📕book entitled “How to fly an aeroplane✈ for beginners. Volume One”.
😊

He opened the first page which said, “To start the engine, press the 🔴red button.”.  He did so and the airplane engine started.
🎺

He was happy and opened the next page. “To set airplane moving press the blue🔵 button.”

He did so and the ✈aeroplane started moving at an amazing speed.
🎷

He wanted to fly so he opened the third page which read, “To let the aeroplane fly, please press the ♻green button.”

He did this and the plane started to ✈✈✈fly.
He was excited!!!🌻

After 20 minutes of flying, he was satisfied and wanted to land so he decided to go to the fourth page.
🍁

He fainted 😱after reading the instruction.. 🎯

The fourth page read, “To learn how to land, please purchase Volume Two at the nearest bookshop!!!!😜😆

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