Is pneumonia contagious?

Pneumonia is swelling (inflammation) of the tissue in one or both lungs. It’s usually caused by a bacterial infection. Pneumonia is usually the result of a pneumococcal infection, caused by bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumonia is most commonly caused by bacteria and viruses, which are contagiousThe germs that can cause pneumonia are usually breathed in. People often have small amounts of germs in their nose and throat that can be passed on through:-

  1. Coughs and Sneezes
  2. Touching an object and transferring germs on to it.

Is Tetanus Fatal? What are symptoms of Tetanus?

What is Tetanus

Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetani usually enters the body through a wound. In the presence of anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, the spores germinate. Toxins are produced and disseminated via blood and lymphatics. Toxins act at several sites within the central nervous system, including peripheral motor end plates, spinal cord, and brain, and in the sympathetic nervous system. The typical clinical manifestations of tetanus are caused when tetanus toxin interferes with release of neurotransmitters, blocking inhibitor impulses. The incidence of tetanus is much higher in less developed countries. The most common type (about 80%) of reported tetanus is generalized tetanus. Three clinical forms of Tetanus are as follows:

  • Local (uncommon)
  • Cephalic (rare)
  • Generalized (most common)

Continue reading “Is Tetanus Fatal? What are symptoms of Tetanus?”

How to clean a Wound

Cleaning an Injury
Cleaning an Injury

A plaster or larger dressing is usually all that is needed to stop a wound bleeding. However, you might need to apply pressure to the area, and if an arm or leg is affected, you should raise it above heart level. Before putting on a plaster or other dressing, you will need to clean the wound. Follow the steps below to ensure that it does not become infected:

  • Wash and dry your hands thoroughly.
  • If you have any cuts on your own hands, you should cover them and wear disposable gloves.
  • If treating someone else, tell them what you are doing.
  • Make sure that the person is sitting or lying down.
  • If the wound has something embedded in it, leave it in place until you seek medical advice (see below).
  • Clean the wound under running tap water, saline (a salt water solution) or use an alcohol-free wipe, gauze pad or soft cloth, but do not use antiseptic, because it may damage the skin.
  • Soak the gauze or cloth in the saline solution or water, and gently dab or wipe the skin with it.
  • Gently pat the area dry using a clean towel or a pad of tissues, but nothing fluffy such as a cotton wool ball, where strands of material can get stuck to the wound.
  • Apply a sterile dressing, such as a bandage or plaster.
  • If blood soaks through the bandage, leave it in place and another bandage, and continue to apply pressure on the wound.

You should always get medical advice if the injury:

  • does not stop bleeding
  • is very large or very deep
  • has something embedded in it
  • is to an artery or on a joint crease
  • is red, sore and painful, or has pus coming out (it may be infected)
  • is an old wound that looks like it might be infected
  • was caused by a bite (all animal and human bites need medical attention)

Most human bites are the result of a “closed fist injury”, where one person punches another person in the teeth and cuts their hand. Typical symptoms include small cuts to the hand and red, swollen and painful skin. If you are not sure how serious your injury is, it is best to get a healthcare professional to check it. If you have a large wound or a deep cut, they will need to examine it carefully to assess how serious it is. They will also clean the wound thoroughly before stitching it up



What to do if Someone is Choking

This information applies to adults and children over one year old. If you want advice for babies under one year old, see What to do if a baby is choking?. Choking happens when someone’s airway suddenly gets blocked, either fully or partly, so they can’t breathe.

Help for Choking Victim

Mild choking: Encourage them to Cough

If the airway is only partly blocked, the person will usually be able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. They will usually be able to clear the blockage themselves.

To help with mild choking in an adult or child over one year old:

  • Encourage the person to keep coughing to try and clear the blockage.
  • Ask the person to try to spit out the object if it’s in their mouth.
  • Don’t put your fingers in their mouth to help them as they may bite you accidentally.

If coughing doesn’t work, start back blows (see below).

Continue reading “What to do if Someone is Choking”

Coffee Reduces Liver Damage

Researchers analyzed data from nine previously published studies with a total of more than 430,000 participants and found that drinking two additional cups of coffee a day was linked to a 44 percent lower risk of developing liver cirrhosis.”Cirrhosis is potentially fatal and there is no cure as such,” said lead study author Dr. Oliver Kennedy of Southampton University in the U.K.”Therefore, it is significant that the risk of developing cirrhosis may be reduced by consumption of coffee, a cheap, ubiquitous and well-tolerated beverage,” Kennedy added by email.Cirrhosis kills more than one million people every year worldwide. It can be caused by hepatitis infections, excessive alcohol consumption, immune disorders, and fatty liver disease, which is tied to obesity and diabetes.

Kennedy and colleagues did a pooled analysis of average coffee consumption across earlier studies to see how much adding two additional cups each day might influence the odds of liver disease.Combined, the studies included 1,990 patients with cirrhosis. In eight of the nine studies analyzed, increasing coffee consumption by two cups a day was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis.In all but one study, the risk of cirrhosis continued to decline as daily cups of coffee climbed.Compared to no coffee consumption, researchers estimated one cup a day was tied to a 22 percent lower risk of cirrhosis. With two cups, the risk dropped by 43 percent, while it declined 57 percent for three cups and 65 percent with four cups.

Countries Infected with Zika Virus

Countries or territories with reported confirmed autochthonous cases of Zika virus infection, as of 28 January 2016


Affected in
the past 2 months

Affected in
the past 9 months

Barbados Increasing or widespread transmission


Bolivia Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Brazil Increasing or widespread transmission


Cabo Verde Increasing or widespread transmission


Colombia Increasing or widespread transmission


Curacao Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Dominican Republic Increasing or widespread transmission


Ecuador Increasing or widespread transmission


El Salvador Increasing or widespread transmission


French Guiana Increasing or widespread transmission


Guadeloupe (France) Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Guatemala Increasing or widespread transmission


Guyana Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Haiti Increasing or widespread transmission


Honduras Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Martinique (France) Increasing or widespread transmission


Mexico Increasing or widespread transmission


Nicaragua Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Panama Increasing or widespread transmission


Paraguay Increasing or widespread transmission


Puerto Rico Increasing or widespread transmission


Saint Martin (France) Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Suriname Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Thailand Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Venezuela Increasing or widespread transmission


Virgin island (US) Sporadic transmission following recent introduction


Fiji No


Maldives No


New Caledonia (France) No


Samoa No


Solomon Islands No


The classification of countries above is based on: 1) number of reported autochthonous confirmed cases; 2) number of affected areas in the country; 3) duration of the circulation.

How to Avoid Cancer

Cancer Update from Johns Hopkins:

1. Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until they have multiplied to a few billion. When doctors tell cancer patients that there are no more cancer cells in their bodies after treatment, it just means the tests are unable to detect the cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size.

2. Cancer cells occur between 6 to more than 10 times in a person’s lifetime.

3. When the person’s immune system is strong the cancer cells will be destroyed and prevented from multiplying and forming tumors.

4. When a person has cancer it indicates the person has nutritional deficiencies. These could be due to genetic, but also to environmental, food and lifestyle factors.

5. To overcome the multiple nutritional deficiencies, changing diet to eat more adequately and healthy, 4-5 times/day and by including supplements will strengthen the immune system.  Continue reading “How to Avoid Cancer”

Butter Vs Margarine

Butter Vs Margarine
Butter Vs Margarine

Difference between Butter and Margarine

Margarine is made from vegetable oils, so it contains unsaturated “good” fats i.e. polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Margarine is any vegetable-oil-based, butter-flavored spread that contains 80% oil. These types of fats help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad,” cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat. Butter, on the other hand, is made from animal fat, so it contains more saturated fat. Regular butter is made with one ingredient: cow’s milk or cream, churned or shaken until it reaches a semisolid state. By definition, it contains at least 80% milk fat by weight, and it takes about 11 quarts of milk to make 1 pound of butter. Continue reading “Butter Vs Margarine”

Dates – Shall be Eaten in Moderation


The sticky, sweet fruit of the palm tree, dates are a traditional food and are eaten for their natural sugar, carbohydrates, protein and nutrient content. They are a healthy snack choice and are a rich source of energy, vitamins and minerals. Date flesh is found to be low in fat and protein but rich in sugars, mainly fructose and glucose. It is a high source of energy, as 100 g of flesh can provide an average of 314 kcal. Ten minerals were reported, the major being selenium, copper, potassium, and magnesium. The consumption of 100 g of dates can provide over 15% of the recommended daily allowance from these minerals. Adding other foods with complementary amino acid profiles to this food may yield a more complete protein source and improve the quality of some types of restrictive diets. Continue reading “Dates – Shall be Eaten in Moderation”

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